166, Special Issue on Nuclear Hydrogen Production, Control, and Management, pp. High or very high temperature reactors used for electricity and hydrogen production have significant future potential to improve efficiency by raising the reactor outlet temperature or steam temperature. The VHTR reference concept is a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an outlet temperature of 1000°C or higher. The thermo chemical production of hydrogen if fission reactors are used requires operation at high temperatures ranging from 750 to 1,000 degrees Celsius. Nuclear power plants may reach an efficiency of around 50%. High temperature electrolysis and thermochemical water splitting offer two promising methods for nuclear powered hydrogen production. Various burnable poison distributions and fuel compositions are considered. The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), a gas cooled Generation IV reactor, is ideally suited for providing this high temperature heat. High temperature electrolysis works on the principal that the energy required to electrolyze water decreases with … THE ADVANCED HIGH-TEMPERATURE REACTOR The primary challenge for nuclear H2 production is the requirement to deliver heat to the thermochemical plant at very high temperatures. The power plant cycle analyzed in the present paper is complex and it is difficult to determine conditions under which all target objectives are fulfilled: high thermodynamic efficiency for combined production of electricity and high-temperature heat which can be used to produce hydrogen. Very High Temperature Reactors will supply process heat that can be used to generate the high temperatures required for clean hydrogen production. Nuclear Systems for Hydrogen Production: State of Art and Perspectives in Transport Sector, Status of the very high temperature reactor system, Closed-Cycle Gas Turbine for Power Generation: A State- of-the-Art Review 2 3 Highlights, Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials, Technology Roadmap Update for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems January 2014. Both cycles are considered promising routes for continuous, efficient, large-scale and environmentally benign hydrogen production without CO2 emissions. The molten-salt-cooled Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a new reactor concept designed to provide very high-temperature (750 to 1000°C) heat to enable efficient low-cost thermochemical production of hydrogen (H 2) or production of electricity. Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) 600. oC - 800oC . HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER VAPOUR AND NUCLEAR REACTORS Jean-Pierre Py (AREVA NP) – Alain Capitaine (EDF) Abstract This paper presents hydrogen production by a nuclear reactor (High Temperature Reactor, HTR or Pressurized Water Reactor, PWR) coupled to a High Temperature Electrolyser (HTE) plant. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The VHTR can produce hydrogen from only heat and water by using thermochemical processes (such as the sulfur-iodine (S-I) process or the hybrid sulfur process), high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), or from heat, water, and natural gas by applying the steam reformer technology. Steam reforming of natural gas1 is dominant in today’s refineries and the production of process heat by HTGR for the refining process could be a starting point towards a fossil … https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.11.190. The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor. Industrial-scale hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition is considered, using high- and medium-temperature processes. This paper provides an initial description and technical analysis of its key features. Direct coupled to HTGR reactor for electrical power and process heat 600 MWth reactor could produce ~85 million SCFD hydrogen (similar to a large steam methane reforming plant) and 42 million SCFD oxygen Potential applications include petroleum refining, ammonia production, synthetic liquid fuels, hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel 15 3. Reactor and Materials Innovation • Overcoming barriers to high -temperature solar thermochemical H. 2. production. Nuclear Power Reactors and Hydrogen Production Tony Irwin 15th July 2020 EA ... Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) 275. o. Very High Temperature Reactor Collaborative R&D, ... Hydrogen production test facility at JAEA Oarai 2.3 H 2 Production. 101-112. (2009). Nuclear heat for hydrogen production: Coupling a very high/high temperature reactor to a hydrogen production plant Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) 750oC - 1,000 oC . When the source of energy for water splitting is renewable or low-carbon, the hydrogen produced is sometimes referred to as green hydrogen. The main parts of such an advanced plant are: reactor pressure vessel, core and close-to-core components, gas turbine, intermediate heat exchanger, and hydrogen production unit. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. Modern plants co-produce electrical energy, fuel and process heat. The demonstration unit being built in Shidaowan links twin 250 MWt units with 750°C outlet temperature to a 210 MWe steam turbine. The use of hydrogen is predicted to increase substantially in the future, both as chemical feedstock and also as energy carrier for transportation. The most advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) project is China's HTR-PM, based on its successful HTR-10 prototype. The VHTR is a suitable candidate for the NGNP due to the high efficiency electrical generation and hydrogen production provided by its high operating temperatures. Methods to produce hydrogen without the use of fossil fuels involve the process of water splitting, or splitting the water molecule H2O into its components oxygen and hydrogen. – Novel cascading pressure design achieves very low O. They build on high-temperature gas-cooled reactors which are already in operation. The nuclear reactor is combined with a gas turbine, a steam turbine and a system for the delivery heat for high-, medium- and low-temperature processes. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Construction of a phenomena identification and Slide 15 Objectives: • Tools to assess reactor performance in normal, upset and accident conditions. The VHTR is a helium- cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C or above. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is researching the feasibility of high-temperature steam electrolysis for high-efficiency carbon-free hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Nuclear heat for hydrogen production: Coupling a very high/high temperature reactor to a hydrogen production plant Using electricity and heat generated from nuclear plants can produce low-cost hydrogen high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). These electrolysis systems use the heat and steam g Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 29 Source: “H2-MHR Pre Conceptual Design Report: S-I Based Plant” [Richards 2006] Similar configurations for Hybrid Sulfur (Westinghouse) thermochemical cycle or High Temperature Steam Electrolysis with very high temperature process heat Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. These water splitting cycles permit the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen at much lower temperatures than the direct thermal decomposition of water. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. HIGH TEMP. Typical temperatures for high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) are between 800º-900ºC, consistent with anticipated coolant outlet temperatures of advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors. high-temperature reactor has 50% efficiency (heat to electricity) and electrolysis has 70% efficiency (electricity to hydrogen), the overall efficiency is only 35%. Very High Temperature Reactor System INPRO Dialogue Forum Vienna, 13 -14 April 2016 Michael A. Fütterer (EU) presented by Frank Carré (France) on behalf of the GIF VHTR System Steering Committee ... hydrogen production coal gasification 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Nuclear Technology: Vol. Only the VHTR with TRISO fuel is capable of operating at the temperatures required for very efficient hydrogen production. This paper is focused on feasible autonomous control strategies for Generation IV very high temperature reactors (VHTRs)-based systems for hydrogen production. In the present work, the feasibility of using a VHTR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analyzed. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) T. he Very-High-Temper-ature Reactor (VHTR) is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor with a once-through uranium fuel cycle. operating temperature is the possible use of the reactor heat generation for hydrogen production from water splitting through high temperature processes (either a thermo-chemical process or high temperature electrolysis), the efficiency of which drastically increases above 900°C. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Hydrogen production using high temperature nuclear reactors: Efficiency analysis of a combined cycle. C . It also requires the transfer of the process heat from the reactor to the chemical plant at high temperature. The annual world production of hydrogen amounts to some 50 million tonnes and the majority is produced using fossil fuels like natural gas, coal and naphtha. Nuclear energy can be used to make hydrogen electrolytically, and in the future high-temperature reactors are likely to be used to make it thermochemically. You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Nuclear hydrogen steelmaking (NHS) and nuclear hydrogen partial reduction steelmaking (NHPRS) sys-tems were proposed using very high temperature reactor, and thermochemical hydrogen production iodine-sulfur process. The conversion can be accomplished in several ways, but all methods are generally more expensive than fossil-fuel based production methods. Development of GAMMA Code as an Integrated Code Analyzing a Coupled Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Hydrogen Production Plant. Heat input and CO 2 emissions of these systems were analyzed by heat and mass balance calculation. It will supply heat with high core outlet temperatures which will enable applications such as hydrogen production and process heat for the petrochemical industry. The Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the helium-cooled Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for the NGNP project. The Gemini+ projectl… Very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are considered as near-term deployable plants meeting these requirements. It is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The results show that the combination of a high temperature helium reactor, with a combined cycle for electric power generation and hydrogen production, may reach an efficiency of around 50%. The energy demand for hydrogen production could exceed that for electricity production today. Specifically, sulphur-iodine (SI) and copper-chlorine (CuCl) thermochemical cycles are examined. The CCGT cycle presented has potential to improve the efficiency. very high temperature reactors (VHTR) or the Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor (SCWR), could provide not only the electricity needed, but also deliver relatively high temperature process heat, providing high net power cycle efficiencies. The molten-salt-cooled Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a new reactor concept designed to provide very high temperature (750 to 1000EC) heat to enable efficient low- cost (1) thermochemical production of hydrogen (H 2 ) or (2) production of electricity. The Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC2I), part of the Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) in the European Union (EU), is focused on HTRs producing 550°C steam for a variety of industrial applications. The VHTR system is designed to be a high-efficiency system that can supply process heat to a broad spectrum of high-temperature and energy-intensive, nonelectric process-es. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. C - 325. o. There is evolving support and increased interest in exploring the possibilities and benefits of nuclear hydrogen production. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The high temperature nuclear reactor provides a new way to produce hydrogen with high efficiency. To improve the efficiency splitting is renewable or low-carbon, the feasibility of a... 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